Table of Contents
The Arizona Court of Appeals in a memorandum decision in the case of In re the marriage of Kasper and Ausema had to address a trial court’s decision to deny a mother a relocation of a child while changing primary physical custody of the children to their father based upon Mother’s relocation.
Mother appeals from the trial court’s ruling denying her petition to relocate the residence of the parties’ children from California to Nevada, denying her request to modify legal decision-making authority and parenting time, denying her request for attorney fees, granting Father’s request to be primary residential parent, removing Kasper’s final legal decision-making authority, and granting Ausema a greater share of parenting time.
She claims that the court: (1) erred by placing on her the burden to prove relocation would be in the best interest of the children, (2) abused its discretion in making its findings and conclusions as to their best interest, (3) abused its discretion by finding that relocation to Nevada would not be in the children’s best interest, (4) erred by modifying legal decision-making authority at all, (5) abused its discretion by modifying the parenting-time order as it did, (6) abused its discretion by failing to award her attorney fees, (7) abused its discretion by using unstated findings from its earlier, temporary order to support its ruling on relocation, (8) erred by failing to cite to the correct, existing legal decision-making order, and (9) erred by referring to a period of five months as a “few months.” Finding no error and no abuse of discretion, we affirm.
In the parties’ April 2011 decree of dissolution, Mother was awarded “sole legal and physical custody” of the parties’ children, and Father was awarded supervised parenting time. In February 2013, the trial court, on the parties’ stipulation, modified the parenting-time order by adopting a residential, vacation, and holiday parenting-time plan that allowed Father unsupervised parenting time; Mother remained the primary residential parent.
In April 2015, after a contested, evidentiary hearing, the court awarded the parents joint legal decision-making authority, leaving Mother as the primary residential parent, giving her final legal decision-making authority, and modifying the summer parenting time schedule, but otherwise leaving the regular parenting-time order unchanged.
In January 2016, Mother petitioned under A.R.S. § 25-408 to relocate with the children from Arizona to California. Father opposed the petition and filed his own motion to modify legal decision-making, parenting time, and child support. Following an evidentiary hearing in February 2016, the court granted Mother’s petition, allowing her to relocate with the children to California.
In May 2016, claiming that Mother intended to move with the children from California to Nevada, Father filed a petition to prevent the relocation. Thereafter, Mother filed her “Request to Relocate the [M]inor Children,” seeking to move the children from California to Nevada.
At about the time she filed her request, Mother had purchased a home in Nevada and enrolled the children in school. Father also filed a motion for temporary orders. Following an evidentiary hearing, the trial court entered temporary orders for the children to live with Father in Arizona and set an evidentiary hearing on the petition to relocate.
Following a December 30, 2016, evidentiary hearing, the trial court denied Mother’s petition on March 27, 2017, finding that she had not carried her burden of proving that it was in the children’s best interest to move to Nevada.
The court affirmed the order of joint legal decision-making authority, ordered that neither parent would have final legal decision-making authority, and, under A.R.S. §§ 25-403 and 25-408, because it was in the children’s best interest, ordered that the children live primarily with Father in Arizona.
Mother timely appeals and seeks a reversal to allow her to relocate the children to Nevada and seeks an award of attorney fees. We have jurisdiction under A.R.S. § 12-2101(A)(1). Application of A.R.S. § 25-408.
For the first time on appeal, Mother argues that the trial court erred by assigning her the burden of proving that the relocation was in the children’s best interest under A.R.S. § 25-408. She argues that § 25-408, Arizona’s relocation statute, does not apply because she was residing in California at the time she sought to relocate to Nevada.
Thus, she argues, the statute’s placement of the burden of proof on her as the relocating parent was a legal error. At no time in the trial court did Mother raise this argument; indeed, her petition to relocate was brought under § 25-408, and she argued below that the § 25-408 factors favored the relocation.
Legal issues and arguments must be presented to the trial court and cannot be argued for the first time on appeal. See Chang v. Siu, 234 Ariz. 442, (App. 2014) (“An appellate court normally will not address arguments not raised in the superior court prior to the appeal.”). Because this argument and legal issue were not presented to the trial court, we will not consider it.
Kasper argues that the best-interest factors supported her relocation and that the trial court abused its discretion in finding otherwise. We review a relocation decision for an abuse of discretion. Hurd v. Hurd, 223 Ariz. 48, (App. 2009). “An abuse of discretion exists when the record, viewed in the light most favorable to upholding the trial court’s decision, is devoid of competent evidence to support the decision.” Id. quoting State ex rel. Dep’t of Econ. Sec. v. Burton, 205 Ariz. 27 (App. 2003).
Trial courts are given broad discretion to determine what is in a child’s best interest because they are in the best position to make that determination. Porter v. Porter, 21 Ariz. App. 300, 302 (1974). We defer to a trial court’s discretionary findings, assessment of witness credibility, and the weighing of evidence so long as the trial court “remains within the bounds of that discretion.” Gutierrez v. Fox, 242 Ariz. 259, (App. 2017).
Court’s Ruling on Changing Child Custody When a Parent Relocates To Another State
Here, the trial court stated its findings and rationale for each of the relevant factors under A.R.S. § 25-408(I), which included the best interest factors under A.R.S. § 25-403(A). Under the § 25-403 best-interest factors, the court found equally for each parent.
In considering the remaining best-interest factors under § 25-408(I), the court found that the factors weighed against relocation to Nevada. On the whole, the court found that Mother had not met her burden of proving that relocating the children again, this time from California to Nevada, was in their best interest.
Mother argues the trial court’s conclusions were “against the weight of the evidence.” However, she is essentially asking this court to reweigh the evidence and disregard any assessment by the trial court of the witnesses’ credibility, which we will not do. Gutierrez v. Gutierrez, 193 Ariz. 343 (App. 1998).
If substantial evidence supports the trial court’s findings and conclusions, they will not be disturbed on appeal. See Pridgeon v. Superior Court, 134 Ariz. 177, 179 (1982) (“On review, the trial court’s decision will not be reversed absent a clear abuse of discretion, i.e., a clear absence of evidence to support its actions.”).
Substantial evidence supports the trial court’s findings and conclusions that relocation was not in the children’s best interest, and, because it does, we find no abuse of discretion.
Mother claims that the order removing her final legal decision-making authority was an error because neither party expressly moved for such a modification under Rule 91, Ariz. R. Fam. Law P., and because there was no express finding of a material change in circumstances or a showing that modification was in the children’s best interest.
We review a trial court’s legal decision-making order for an abuse of discretion. Nold v. Nold, 232 Ariz. 270, (App. 2013). For such a modification, “the court must first determine whether there has been a change in circumstances materially affecting the child’s welfare,” and then, “whether a change in custody would be in the child’s best interests.” Christopher K. v. Markaa S., 233 Ariz. 297, (App. 2013) (internal citations omitted).
Whether or not a Rule 91 petition is filed with the relocation petition, it is self-evident that a petition by a parent seeking to move the residence of the children from one state to another may require a change in either parenting time or legal decision-making authority. Cf. Murray v. Murray, 239 Ariz. 174, (App. 2016) (finding a material change in circumstances because the mother’s plan to relocate may have implicated legal decision-making).
We can reasonably infer that the trial court found a material change in the circumstances affecting the children. See Johnson v. Elson, 192 Ariz. 486, (App. 1998) (appellate court may infer findings of fact and conclusions of law to sustain trial court if reasonably supported by evidence); see also Canty v. Canty, 178 Ariz. 443, 448-49 (1994) (finding sufficient evidence of changed circumstances though finding absent from minute entry).
The court left unchanged the overall joint legal decision-making order, and the court’s best-interest findings support the previous relocation to California was supposed to be permanent, but within several months she sought to relocate the children again. In fact, she purchased a home and enrolled the children in school in Nevada without seeking the father’s consent or leave of the court.
Unlike the move to California, the move to Nevada would be a lateral move for Mother, in that she had failed to demonstrate how the move would benefit the children financially or socially. Father, on the other hand, has remained in the same home for three years, in the state the children were raised.
The modification of removing the final legal decision-making authority. See Murray, 239 Ariz. 174, citing Owen v. Blackhawk, 206 Ariz. 418 (App. 2003) (when relocation implicates legal decision making, the trial court must make specific findings under § 25-403 to support its determination).
By removing final legal decision-making authority from Mother, the court merely ordered that the court will resolve any legal decision-making issues if the parties cannot agree. The court did not abuse its discretion in making changes following Mother’s relocation.
Mother also argues that the trial court abused its discretion in setting the parenting schedule which gave her less parenting time. A court’s award of parenting time will not be disturbed absent a clear abuse of discretion. Pridgeon, 134 Ariz. at 179. A reviewing court will not reweigh the evidence. See Gutierrez, 242 Ariz. 259.
A trial court abuses its discretion in awarding parenting time when its decision is not supported by the evidence. See Pridgeon, 134 Ariz. at 179. “Shared legal decision making does not necessarily mean equal parenting time.” A.R.S. § 25- 403.02(E).
The trial court’s parenting time order is supported by the court’s finding that relocation was not in the children’s best interest, and because the school-aged children would primarily reside with Father, with Mother living in another state, Mother’s parenting time would, if not necessarily, at least justifiably, be reduced. Thus, this court cannot say that the trial court abused its discretion.
Finally, Mother makes a series of other arguments that the trial court erred and abused its discretion when it (1) failed to award her attorney fees, (2) failed to consider its February 19, 2016, order as controlling, (3) referred to the Nevada move as her second proposed move “in the last few months,” and (4) “bolster[ed]” its order with unstated findings from its earlier, temporary order.
As to attorney fees, Kasper cites to no legal authority that supports her allegation that the trial court abused its discretion, we, therefore, consider the argument waived. See Cullum v. Cullum, 215 Ariz. 352, n.5 (App. 2007) (“We will not consider arguments posited without authority.”).
As to the remaining claimed errors, 403.01(A), A.R.S., provides: “In awarding legal decision-making, the court may order sole legal decision-making or joint legal decision-making.” There is no statutory reference to “final legal decision-making authority.” Mother similarly fails to develop her arguments in any meaningful way, and we will likewise not address them.
For the foregoing reasons, we affirm the judgment of the trial court. Both sides have requested an award of attorney fees and costs on appeal under Rule 21, Ariz. R. Civ. App. P., and A.R.S. § 25-324. In our discretion, we deny Mother’s request because she has not prevailed on appeal and Father’s request because Mother’s appeal was not frivolous or unreasonable.
Murray v. Murray Holding That a Relocation Constitutes a Request to Modify Child Custody in Arizona
In Murray v. Murray, the Arizona Court of Appeals considered the application of this requirement to a parent’s request to relocate with the children when that relocation would affect parenting time or legal decision making for the parents.
Kamen Rae Murray (Mother) and Sean Noel Patrick Murray (Father) were granted an order awarding both parents joint legal decision making over their children in 2009. The court subsequently issued another order modifying parenting time in January 2014.
Pursuant to the modification, Mother and Father continued to share joint legal decision making, but Father’s parenting time was increased to six days every two weeks. A month later, in the month of February 2014, Father learned Mother intended to remarry and relocate with the children to the state of Nebraska. He filed a Motion to Prevent Relocation and Request for Attorney’s Fees and Costs.
The court granted Father’s motion in August 2014 ruling that Mother could not take the children to Nebraska. The mother then filed a Motion for Clarification and/or Motion to Amend Under Advisement Ruling, followed by an Expedited Motion to Allow Petitioner’s Witnesses to Appear Telephonically for Trial and a Motion to Enforce the Parties’ Agreement. Mother’s motions were denied and Father was awarded a portion of his attorney’s fees and costs. Mother appealed the judge’s rulings.
Child Relocation in Arizona and the One Year Rule
On appeal, Mother argued the superior court judge erred in his ruling that A.R.S. Section 25-411(A) prevented the relocation of the children less than a year after the modification order issued January 2014. Additional findings of the court were that even were the one-year restriction not to apply to the case, Mother did not prove to the court that the relocation of the children would be in their best interests.
The Arizona Court of Appeals reviewed the case to determine if the judge abused his discretion. After review, it found the superior court judge’s application of A.R.S. Section 25-411(A) to the case to prevent Mother’s relocation with the children was correct due to the fact that the one year waiting period to modify the prior legal decision making and parenting time order had not expired.
The move would have required that changes be made to the parenting time arrangements already established by the January 2014 order. It was also concluded that the move may have also required a change in legal decision making. Mother’s plan to move with the children to Nebraska, with Father continuing to reside in Arizona, would disrupt Father’s parenting time and impact his ability to participate in shared legal decision making over the children.
If you have questions about changing custody when a parent relocates in an Arizona divorce case, you should seriously consider contacting the attorneys at Hildebrand Law, PC. Our Arizona child custody and family law attorneys have over 100 years of combined experience successfully representing clients in child custody and family law cases.
Our family law firm has earned numerous awards such as US News and World Reports Best Arizona Family Law Firm, US News and World Report Best Divorce Attorneys, “Best of the Valley” by Arizona Foothills readers, and “Best Arizona Divorce Law Firms” by North Scottsdale Magazine.
Call us today at (480)305-8300 or reach out to us through our appointment scheduling form to schedule your personalized consultation and turn your Arizona child custody or family law case around today.
More Articles About Child Custody in Arizona
- CHILD CUSTODY LAWS IN ARIZONA
- CHILD RELOCATION IS A MODIFICATION OF CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- CALCULATING DISTANCE FOR CHILD RELOCATION IN ARIZONA
- CHANGE IN CIRCUMSTANCES FOR CHILD CUSTODY MODIFICATIONS IN ARIZONA
- EMERGENCY CHILD CUSTODY WHEN ARIZONA LACKS JURISDICTION
- HOW TO REGISTER A CHILD CUSTODY ORDER IN ARIZONA
- HOME STATE CUSTODY JURISDICTION WHEN A CHILD RELOCATES TO ARIZONA
- ARIZONA CHILD RELOCATION LAWS
- ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION: TEMPORARY VERSUS PERMANENT RELOCATIONS
- TEMPORARY VISITATION ORDERS FOR GRANDPARENTS IN ARIZONA
- CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN CHILD RELOCATION STATUTE DOES NOT APPLY IN ARIZONA
- SIGNIFICANT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SOLE CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- RAISING ALLEGATIONS THAT WERE RAISED IN A PRIOR ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- MULTI-STATE CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION IN ARIZONA
- SCHOOL CHOICE AND CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- UNAUTHORIZED RELOCATION OF CHILDREN IN ARIZONA
- GRANDPARENTS CANNOT PREVENT CHILD RELOCATION IN ARIZONA
- WHEN ARIZONA’S CHILD RELOCATION STATUTE DOES NOT APPLY
- UCCJEA CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION IN ARIZONA
- MENTAL HEALTH RECORDS IN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- FAILING TO ALLEGE A CHANGE IN CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN MODIFYING CHILD CUSTODY
- CHILD CUSTODY AND NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDERS IN ARIZONA
- CHANGE IN CIRCUMSTANCES TO CHANGE CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- MUTUAL ACTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- PARENTING TIME WITH A NON-BIOLOGICAL CHILD IN ARIZONA
- WHEN A CHILD CUSTODY HEARING IS REQUIRED IN ARIZONA
- HOSTILE COMMUNICATIONS A BASIS TO MODIFY CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- DUE PROCESS RIGHTS IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY HEARING
- THIRD PARTY VISITATION WITH A CHILD IN ARIZONA
- SUITABLE NOTICE FOR AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY HEARING
- MEANING OF HOME STATE JURISDICTION IN ARIZONA
- WHAT DOCTORS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- WITHHOLDING CHILDREN FROM A CUSTODIAL PARENT IN ARIZONA
- THE BEST CHILD CUSTODY LAWYER IN ARIZONA
- FALSE ALLEGATIONS OF CHILD ABUSE IN A CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- WHO GETS CUSTODY OF THE CHILDREN WHEN A DIVORCE IS FILED IN ARIZONA
- WHAT VISITATION OR PARENTING TIME SCHEDULES CAN JUDGES ORDER IN ARIZONA
- WHAT IS JOINT LEGAL CUSTODY AND JOINT LEGAL DECISION MAKING IN ARIZONA
- WHAT IS A PARENTING COORDINATOR IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- WHAT IS A CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATION IN ARIZONA
- WHAT HAPPENS IF A PARENT WANTS TO MOVE OUT OF STATE WITH A CHILD IN ARIZONA
- WHAT ARE THE CHILD CUSTODY FACTORS IN ARIZONA
- TEMPORARY CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- RESTRICTIONS IN ARIZONA ON TAKING CHILDREN TO ANOTHER COUNTRY
- PRESUMPTION OF EQUAL PARENTING TIME IN ARIZONA
- DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PRESUMPTION IN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- PREPARING FOR AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY EVALUATION
- PARENTING TIME AFTER LOSING AN ORDER OF PROTECTION HEARING IN ARIZONA
- PARENTAL ALIENATION IN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- PARENT INFORMATION PROGRAM CLASS IN ARIZONA
- LIMITS ON MOVING CHILDREN MULTIPLE TIMES IN ARIZONA
- JOINT CUSTODY AND SCHOOL DECISIONS IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO GET SOLE CUSTODY OF CHILDREN IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO ENFORCE PARENTING TIME IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO CHANGE A CHILD’S LAST NAME IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO MODIFY VISITATION OR PARENTING TIME IN ARIZONA
- GRANDPARENT CUSTODY AND VISITATION RIGHTS IN ARIZONA
- GETTING EMERGENCY CHILD CUSTODY ORDERS IN ARIZONA
- ENFORCING VISITATION AS A NON-CUSTODIAL PARENT
- DO COURTS FAVOR MOTHERS IN CUSTODY BATTLES
- ARIZONA COURTS CANNOT DELEGATE CHILD CUSTODY DETERMINATIONS TO AN EXPERT
- CONTESTING RELOCATION OF A CHILD WHEN YOU DO NOT LIVE IN ARIZONA
- CO-PARENTING AFTER DIVORCE
- CHANGING A CHILD’S LAST NAME IN ARIZONA
- CAN A PARENT WITH SOLE CUSTODY LIMIT ACCESS TO A CHILD’S MEDICAL RECORDS
- CAN A GRANDPARENT OR STEPPARENT BE AWARDED CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- AFFIDAVITS IN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- 5 THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT A BEST INTEREST ATTORNEY IN ARIZONA
- WITNESS PREPARATION IN ARIZONA DIVORCE AND CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- EFFECT OF CORONAVIRUS ON CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION ORDERS
- TEMPORARY ORDERS FOR GRANDPARENT VISITATION IN ARIZONA
- CAN A STEPPARENT BE HELD IN CONTEMPT FOR WRONGFUL DENIAL OF VISITATION IN ARIZONA
- INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT CHILD CUSTODY LAWS IN ARIZONA
- CUSTODY OF THE FAMILY PET IN A DIVORCE IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO GET CUSTODY OF A CHILD IN AN ARIZONA DEPENDENCY CASE
- JUDGES CANNOT REQUIRE A CHILD TO SEE A THERAPIST IN AN ARIZONA CUSTODY DISPUTE
- CALCULATING CHILD SUPPORT WITH SPLIT CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- EXCLUDING EVIDENCE DISCLOSED LATE IN A CHILD CUSTODY CASE IN ARIZONA
- HEARING REQUIRED BEFORE DECLINING CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION IN ARIZONA
- FILING A LATE OBJECTION TO CHILD RELOCATION NOTICE IN ARIZONA
- CAN VISITATION WITH A CHILD BE REDUCED WITHOUT PRIOR NOTICE IN ARIZONA
- WHEN FINDINGS OF FACT ARE NOT REQUIRED IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- FINAL DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO PREPARE FOR A CHILD CUSTODY HEARING IN ARIZONA
- IMPORTANCE OF MEDIATING CHILD CUSTODY ISSUES IN A DIVORCE IN ARIZONA
- WHAT IS A THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONIST IN ARIZONA
- DISMISSAL OF A PETITION TO MODIFY CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- CAN A BEST INTEREST ATTORNEY TESTIFY AT A CHILD CUSTODY TRIAL IN ARIZONA
- CHILD CUSTODY AND CRIMINAL RECORDS IN ARIZONA
- FATHER AWARDED CUSTODY ON MOTHER’S MOTION TO MODIFY IN ARIZONA
- HOW TO PREPARE FOR A CHILD CUSTODY CASE IN ARIZONA
- CO-PARENTING WITH YOUR EX IN ARIZONA
- THIRD PARTY SEEKING EMERGENCY CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL IN ARIZONA
- SOLE LEGAL CUSTODY OVER MEDICAL DECISIONS IN ARIZONA
- BEWARE OF THE KNOWN DONOR IN STATES LIKE CALIFORNIA
- SAME-SEX MARRIAGE AND CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- FAILING TO APPEAR FOR A CHILD CUSTODY HEARING IN ARIZONA
- PROHIBITING CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL AS A CONDITION OF PARENTING TIME
- JURISDICTION IS NECESSARY TO PETITION FOR VISITATION IN ARIZONA
- JURISDICTION FOR DEPENDENCY CASES IN ARIZONA
- DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND PARENTING TIME IN ARIZONA
- GUIDELINES FOR SUPERVISED PARENTING TIME IN ARIZONA
- EXCLUDING TESTIMONY IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- RIGHT OF A GUARDIAN AD LITEM TO BE HEARD IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- CHANGING PARENTING TIME WHEN CHILDREN CHANGE SCHOOLS
- APPEALING DEPENDENCY ORDERS IN ARIZONA
- RIGHT TO NOTICE AND AN EVIDENTIARY HEARING IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- HABEAS CORPUS IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- JURISDICTION OVER A MINOR CHILD RESIDING OUTSIDE THE STATE OF ARIZONA
- DENIAL OF ADDITIONAL TIME TO PRESENT EVIDENCE IN AN ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY CASE
- PARENTING PLANS IN ARIZONA DIVORCE AND CHILD CUSTODY CASES
- VISITATION RIGHTS OF A PERSON STANDING IN LOCO PARENTIS TO A CHILD IN ARIZONA
- MODIFICATION OF CHILD CUSTODY AND CHILD ABDUCTION IN ARIZONA
- TEMPORARY CHILD CUSTODY ORDERS IN AN ARIZONA DIVORCE DECREE
- CAN A STEPPARENT OBTAIN CHILD CUSTODY RIGHTS IN ARIZONA
- IN LOCO PARENTIS VISITATION WITH A CHILD BY A STEPPARENT IN ARIZONA
- BEST INTEREST STANDARD FOR THIRD PARTY CHILD CUSTODY IN ARIZONA
- ARIZONA CHILD CUSTODY DECISIONS CANNOT BE DELEGATED TO AN EXPERT
- USE OF THE UCCJEA IN DEPENDENCY CASES IN ARIZONA
- ARIZONA UNIFORM CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION AND ENFORCEMENT ACT STATUTES
- WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ONLY ONE SPOUSE ADOPTS A CHILD IN ARIZONA
About the Author: Chris Hildebrand has over 26 years of Arizona family law experience and received awards from US News and World Report, Phoenix Magazine, Arizona Foothills Magazine and others. Visit https://www.hildebrandlaw.com.